Written by Osama Tabasam


Relations between the US and Cuba have been interdependent for a long time. Since 1960, the United States has maintained economic sanctions against Cuba. In 1898, the US declares war on Spain. There is a number of phases and dates in which different events mark their remembrance.


History from 1898

As in 1898, there was a war between the US and Spain. Spain lost the battle, which gives up all claims to Cuba and cedes it to the US. After that war, in 1902, Cuba becomes independent with Tomas Estrada Palma as its president. Contrary, the Platt Amendment keeps the island under US protection. That gives the US the right to intervene in Cuban affairs all the official matters.

From 1906 to 1909, Estrada resigned and the United States occupied Cuba after a coup led by Jose Miguel Gomez. Moreover, in 1909, Jose Miguel Gomez became president after the US-supervised election, but he was soon subjected to corruption. US forces return to Cuba to help stop black protests against discrimination in 1912. Now in 1933Gerardo Machado was overthrown in a mutiny led by Sergeant Flagencio Battista. After this coup, in 1934, the United States relinquished its right to interfere in Cuban affairs, amending the Cuban sugar quota changed tariff tariffs to support Cuba.

Moreover, in 1953 Fidel Castro leads an unsuccessful revolt against the Batista regime. As he was a Marxist and believe in socialism. He was against the government of Cuba. Castro landed in eastern Cuba in 1956 and reached the mountains of the Sierra Maestra, where, with the help of Ernesto “Chi” Guevara, he fought a guerrilla war. They with the help of Cuban people form a revolutionary group and in 1958, The US withdraws military aid to Batista. After successful movement, Castro leads a 9,000-strong guerrilla army into Havana in 1959, and overthrow the government of Batista. Castro becomes prime minister.

Meeting of Castro and Nixon, US Vice President

Moreover, in April 1959, Castro meets US Vice President Richard Nixon on an unofficial visit to Washington. Nixon then wrote that the United States had no choice but to “acquaint” the left-wing leader in the “right direction”. The US invested a lot of its wealth in Cuba and in 1960, all US businesses in Cuba are nationalized without compensation. In return, the US breaks off diplomatic relations with Havana and imposes a trade embargo in response to Castro’s reforms.

In 1961, the US supports the Cuban exile attack on the Gulf of Pigs. Castro declared Cuba a communist state and began an alliance with the Soviet Union. After joining the communist block and neglecting capitalism he introduces a new era in Cuba. Due to this in 1961, the CIA begins to make plans to assassinate Castro as part of Operation Mongoose. The US tried at least five plans to kill the Cuban leader during 1961 and 1963.

1962: The Cuban missile crisis

Cuban missile crisis

 On 28 Oct 1962, Cuba’s missile crisis erupted when, for fear of an American invasion, Castro agreed to allow the Soviet Union to deploy nuclear missiles on the island. The United States released pictures of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba – leading to a crisis that took both superpowers to the brink of nuclear war. Contrary, when the USSR agreed to remove the missiles if and only if the US will withdraw her nuclear missiles from Turkey. Due to this, the confrontation of the Cold war was ended.  When Castro temporarily lifted sanctions in 1980, about 125,000 Cubans fled the United States.

Moreover, in 1993 the United States tightens its sanctions on Cuba, which makes some market corrections to prevent its economy from deteriorating. These include legalizing the US dollar, converting many state farms into semi-autonomous cooperatives, and legalizing limited individual private businesses. Cuba signs an agreement with the US in 1994. According to which, the United States agrees to accept 20,000 Cubans a year in exchange for stopping Cuban refugees’ housing. Likewise, in 1996.

At last, the Cuban-based Cuban deportation in Miami in response to the shooting of two US aircraft Cuban US trade ban became permanent. Contrary, in 1998, the US eases restrictions on the sending of money to relatives by Cuban Americans. In November 1999, Cuban child Elian Gonzalez was abducted off the Florida coast after a boat in which his mother, stepfather, and others tried to escape from American occupation. Moreover, a  major Cuban-based ex-pat campaign in Miami is launched to prevent Allen from joining his father in Cuba and to stay with relatives in Miami.

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