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Hagia Sophia from a museum to a mosque has shattered any hope for Turkey to join the European Union and has instead pulled it towards pan-Islamism In a while since Turkey has been actively battling among the Muslim world for the role of administration

According to an analysis of Turkey-Pakistan relations and the way Pakistan may get squeezed between China and Turkey, the second strongest allies of Pakistan. The foundation of current Turkish-Pakistani ties was ordered around 1918-1922 with the emergence of the Caliphate movement in Asian countries. It aimed to anticipate the division of the empire by nice Great Britain and defensive the terribly plan of the Islamic Caliphate. The movement aimed to bring Muslims along the Hindus to fight against a typical enemy throughout the Independence struggle.

The Khilafat Movement was based by Shaukat Ali, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Abul Kalam Azad in 1919 to revive the Ottoman Caliphate that was thought of the leader of Sunni Muslims as a systematic political authority. In their order, the Khilafat Movement needed a fight against British imperialism. This attracted varied social teams of the population like peasantry, artisans, workers, little and medium-sized entrepreneurs, and Muslim clergy toward the movement. This conflict was anti-colonial and anti-feudal. However, after 1922, the transition of Turkey to a secular state beneath national leader Ataturk finished the Khilafat Movement. It later became an associate elite organization advocating communal separatism. Since Muslims living in British India provided financial backing to the Kemalists throughout the Turkish War of Independence, Turkish capital in 1947 straight off established diplomatic relations with the newly formed state Pakistan. There was conjointly a private issue. The founding father of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, spoke extremely of the national leadership of kamal Atta Turk, and then President Pervez Musharraf did the same.

Both countries offer continuous support to one another in every alternative at the international level. In 1974 Pakistan was the sole country to support the Turkish operation in Cyprus. In 2003, Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz said: “Whatever steps Turkey has made public in reference to Northern Cyprus, we will be there to support it with no reservations, we tend to area unit 100% on the Turkish side”. President Pervez Musharraf conjointly explicit that “Pakistan totally supports the struggle of the Turkish Cypriots for his or her simply cause”.

Despite the downturn of bilateral relations in the 1990s (the reason being, Turkey supported the Northern Alliance, and Pakistan helped the Taliban), Turkish President Ahmet Necdet Sezer declared his support for Pakistan in the Kashmir conflict in 2001.

 June 2003 Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan said “We believe that Pakistan’s actions to resolve the Kashmir problem are very positive and we highly appreciate and admire them. Turkey fully supports Pakistan on the Kashmir issue. The problem must be resolved as soon as possible

In February 2020, relations between Turkey and India deteriorated because of President Erdogan’s open supported for Pakistan and therefore the Kashmiri militants, just pledged to the Turkish President to assist national capital within the conflict with the monetary Action Task Force or the FATF.

Turkey and people of Turkey are stand with the people of Kashmir, Turkey stands for the resolution of the Kashmir through dialogue between Pakistan and India, based on UN resolutions and in accordance with the expectations of Kashmiries.

It is important to note the high level of cooperation between Turkey and Pakistan in the military aspect. During the Cold War, both states were members of the CENTO military-political bloc. In 1988, the Turkish-Pakistani Military Advisory Group was established to exchange experiences in military education and the defense industry. In 2003, the Higher Military Dialogue organization was formed by these two states.

After that Pakistan and turkey had held military exercise and at the beginning of 1990, Pakistani F-16 jets were modernized in Turkey. Over the past two years, Turkey has become the second-largest supplier of weapons for the Pakistan Army after China. In 2018, Pakistan purchased 30 Turkish T-129 helicopters worth $ 1.5 billion.

On 11 Oct 2019, the Prime Minister of Pakistan Imran Khan supported the operation of the Turkish troops “Peace Spring” in northern Syria. This was no coincidence, as Pakistan antecedently supported the Turkish Republic within the fight against the Kurdistan Workers’ Party.

The parties have additionally achieved vital successes within the fields of education and culture. In may 2003, the Institute for Strategic Studies, islamabad and Ankara Center for Strategic Studies signed an agreement geared toward developing ties in academic and scientific fields.

Despite the evacuation of Fethullah Gulen’s supporters from workers, a network of Turkish-language colleges and faculties operate in Pakistan beneath the Turkish Education Foundation. Also, Turkish dramas translated into Urdu are highly demand in Pakistan.

Turkey tried to mediate between Afghanistan and Pakistan. On the initiative of the Turkish faced, a gathering between Afghan President Hamid Karzai and Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf which held in Ankara, on 29th April 2007, as a result of that the Ankara declaration on cooperation in varied fields, together with the fight against the act of terrorism, was signed. “A joint cluster to coordinate efforts to create mutual trust” was conjointly shaped.

In july of that year, the primary meeting of the cluster was held in Ankara. The second summit with the participation of President Hamid Karzai, Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari, and Turkish President Abdullah Gul was held in December 2008, and a 3rd summit with identical participants on 1st April, 2009. The eighth meeting occurred in Feb 2014

Taking place at the same time with the Stanbul meeting that began in Nov 2011, these summits, however, couldn’t come through the most goal of resolution long-standing conflicts and enhancing relations between Pakistan and  Afghanistan.

The failure to attain this goal failed to, in any means have an effect on the Afghan-Turkish and Pakistani-Turkish relations, particularly given the fruitful cooperation between Ankara and Islamabad within the Organization of Muslim Cooperation.

Also Read: Security Dynamics And Great Powers Division in South Asia

As within the case of Afghanistan, Turkey and Pakistan  brought by the Sunni Islam of the Hanafi Madhhab. Pakistan’s membership within the Islamic G8 (D-8), that was established at the initiative of Turkey in 1997, plays a vital role.

The main complication in Pakistani-Turkish relations is that the low level of economic ties. In 2004, the trade turnover between the countries was negligible – 160 $ as February of the year, the trade turnover between the two countries was $ 900 million.

The biggest political issues between the two  ‘iron brothers’ embrace the disagreements on the Uyghur issue WHO faces ill-treatment in the province region by the Chinese communist government.

Due to much ties with China, Pakistan calls the rebels Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement as terrorists while Turkey has consistently criticized China for its obnoxious policies in Xinjiang..

Later, President Erdogan slightly changed his position on the Uyghur issue for the need to strengthen economic ties with china via CPEC. All this coincided with the deterioration of Turkey’s relations with the USA and also the international organization whereas obtaining on the brink of Russia.

Overall, it appears that Turkey under President Erdogan, with the backing of China and Pakistan, aims to achieve a leadership role in the Islamic world and oust Saudi Arabia from this place.

By Nazrana khan
Independent writer

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